1. Case study 1: Dude or Duuude?

  • The data for this exercise were taken from a study of the way Californians pronounce the /u/ in the word dude
  • 193 people were recorded saying the word dude and the F2 formant of the /u/ was measured
  • Research question:
    • Do surfers pronounce the word dude differently from non-surfers?
  • Hypothesis:
    • Surfers will have higher F2 values than non-surfers

1.1 Loading and exploring the data

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1.2 A first exploration of the differences with a box-and-whisker plot

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1.3 Checking the assumptions of statistical tests

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1.4 Performing the statistical test

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1.5 Plotting the differences between the groups

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2. Case study 2: high- and low-frequency words and their associations

  • Paivio et al. (1968) instructed groups of college students to rate 925 nouns for the following characteristics (see Levshina, 2015: 89, who provided the data):
    • concreteness, on a 7-point scale, How directly is the concept related to immediate reference?
    • imaginability, on a 7-point scale, What is the relative capacity of the concept to evoke non-verbal mental images?
    • associations: the number of associations that is triggered by the word in a 30-second time window
  • The research question we are addressing is the following:
    • Do high-frequency nouns evoke more associations?
  • Our hypothesis is that:
    • High-frequency noun evoke more associations than low-frequency nouns
  • The null hypothesis is that:
    • There is no difference in the number of associations that are triggered by high - and low-frequency nouns

2.1 Loading and exploring the data

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2.2 A first exploration of the differences with a box-and-whisker plot

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2.3. Checking the assumptions of statistical tests

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2.4 Performing the statistical test

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2.5 Plotting the differences between the groups

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3. Case study 3: The influence of formal and semantic similarity on acceptability tasks

  • Eddington & Ruiz de Mendoza (2010) presented subjects with the same test sentences under two conditions:
    • Primed with a syntactically similar sentence
    • Primed with a syntactically and semantically similar sentence
  • The subjects were asked to rate the test sentences as acceptable or unaccceptable
  • The reaction times were measured as the outcome variable
  • Research question:
    • If subjects are primed with a formally and semantically similar sentence, are they faster at judging the grammaticality of test sentences than when they are primed with just a formally similar sentence?
  • Hypothesis:
    • Priming with a formally and a semantically similar sentence will decrease subjects’ reaction times

3.1 Loading and exploring the data

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3.2 A first exploration of the differences with a box-and-whisker plot

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3.3. Checking the assumptions of statistical tests

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3.4 Performing the statistical test

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3.5 Plotting the differences between the groups

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References

  • Eddington, D., & Ruiz De Mendoza, F. J. (2010). Argument constructions and language processing: Evidence from a priming experiment and pedagogical implications. In S. De Knop, F. Boers, A. De Rycker (eds.), Fostering Language Teaching Efficiency through Cognitive Linguistics (213-238). Berlin/Boston, MA: De Gruyter.
  • Levshina, N. (2015). How to do linguistics with R: Data exploration and statistical analysis. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamin’s.
  • Paivio, A., Juille, J. C., & Madigan, S. (1968). Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76(1, Pt. 2), 1-25.

© 2018 Jeroen Claes