1. Working with data.frames

Loading data from CSV

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

Exploring data.frames (1/2)

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

Exploring data.frames (2/2)

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

Subsetting data.frames (1/2)

eyJsYW5ndWFnZSI6InIiLCJwcmVfZXhlcmNpc2VfY29kZSI6ImxpYnJhcnkocmVhZHIpXG5kYXRhU2V0IDwtIHJlYWRfY3N2KFwiaHR0cDovL3d3dy5qZXJvZW5jbGFlcy5iZS9zdGF0aXN0aWNzX2Zvcl9saW5ndWlzdGljcy9kYXRhc2V0cy9jbGFzczJfYmFsb3RhX2V0X2FsXzIwMDcuY3N2XCIpIiwic2FtcGxlIjoiIyBUaGUgZGF0YS5mcmFtZSBkYXRhU2V0IGlzIGFscmVhZHkgaW4geW91ciB3b3Jrc3BhY2UuIFxuXG4jIFByaW50IHRoZSBsYXN0IGNvdXBsZSBvZiB2YWx1ZXMgb2YgaXRzICdGcmVxJyBjb2x1bW5cblxuIyBDcmVhdGUgYSBuZXcgZGF0YS5mcmFtZSwgY2FsbGVkIFwibG93RnJlcXVlbmN5LCAgd2hpY2ggaG9sZHMgYWxsIHJvd3Mgb2YgZGF0YVNldCwgd2hlcmUgRnJlcSBpcyBzbWFsbGVyIHRoYW4gb3IgZXF1YWwgdG8gMzBcblxuIyBQcmludCB0aGUgZmlyc3QsIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQsIGFuZCB0aGUgNTB0aCByb3cgb2YgdGhpcyBkYXRhLmZyYW1lIiwic29sdXRpb24iOiIjIFRoZSBkYXRhLmZyYW1lIGRhdGFTZXQgaXMgYWxyZWFkeSBpbiB5b3VyIHdvcmtzcGFjZS4gXG5cbiMgUHJpbnQgdGhlIGxhc3QgY291cGxlIG9mIHZhbHVlcyBvZiBpdHMgJ0ZyZXEnIGNvbHVtblxudGFpbChkYXRhU2V0JEZyZXEpXG4jIENyZWF0ZSBhIG5ldyBkYXRhLmZyYW1lLCBjYWxsZWQgXCJsb3dGcmVxdWVuY3ksICB3aGljaCBob2xkcyBhbGwgcm93cyBhbmQgY29sdW1ucyBvZiBkYXRhU2V0LCB3aGVyZSBGcmVxIGlzIHNtYWxsZXIgdGhhbiBvciBlcXVhbCB0byAzMFxubG93RnJlcXVlbmN5IDwtIGRhdGFTZXRbZGF0YVNldCRGcmVxIDw9IDMwLF1cblxuIyBQcmludCB0aGUgZmlyc3QsIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQsIGFuZCB0aGUgNTB0aCByb3cgb2YgdGhpcyBkYXRhLmZyYW1lXG5sb3dGcmVxdWVuY3lbYygxLCAyLCA1MCksXSIsInNjdCI6InRlc3Rfb3V0cHV0X2NvbnRhaW5zKFwidGFpbChkYXRhU2V0JEZyZXEpXCIsIGluY29ycmVjdF9tc2cgPSBcIk1ha2Ugc3VyZSB0byBwcmludCB0aGUgbGFzdCBjb3VwbGUgb2YgdmFsdWVzIG9mIEZyZXFcIilcbnRlc3Rfb2JqZWN0KFwibG93RnJlcXVlbmN5XCIpXG50ZXN0X291dHB1dF9jb250YWlucyhcImxvd0ZyZXF1ZW5jeVtjKDEsIDIsIDUwKSxdXCIsIGluY29ycmVjdF9tc2cgPSBcIk1ha2Ugc3VyZSB0byBwcmludCB0aGUgZmlyc3QsIHRoZSBzZWNvbmQsIGFuZCB0aGUgNTB0aCByb3cgb2YgbG93RnJlcXVlbmN5XCIpXG5zdWNjZXNzX21zZyhcIkdyZWF0IVwiKSJ9

Subsetting data.frames (2/2)

eyJsYW5ndWFnZSI6InIiLCJwcmVfZXhlcmNpc2VfY29kZSI6ImxpYnJhcnkocmVhZHIpXG5kYXRhU2V0IDwtIHJlYWRfY3N2KFwiaHR0cDovL3d3dy5qZXJvZW5jbGFlcy5iZS9zdGF0aXN0aWNzX2Zvcl9saW5ndWlzdGljcy9kYXRhc2V0cy9jbGFzczJfYmFsb3RhX2V0X2FsXzIwMDcuY3N2XCIpIiwic2FtcGxlIjoiIyBUaGUgZGF0YS5mcmFtZSBkYXRhU2V0IGlzIGFscmVhZHkgaW4geW91ciB3b3Jrc3BhY2UuIFxuXG4jIEV4dHJhY3QgYWxsIHZhbHVlcyBvZiBXb3JkIHdpdGggTWVhbl9SVCBzbWFsbGVyIHRoYW4gNjAwLiBQcmludCBvbmx5IHRoZSBmaXJzdCBjb3VwbGUgb2Ygd29yZHNcblxuIyBFeHRyYWN0IExlbmd0aCBhbmQgRnJlcSBvZiB0aGUgZm9sbG93aW5nIHdvcmRzOiBcIm1vbmV5c1wiICBcInN0aW5nZXJcIiBcInNwYXJlXCIgICBcImJhbmRhZ2VcIiBcImFjb3JuXCIgIFxuXG4jIEFkZCBhIG5ldyB2YXJpYWJsZSB0byB0aGUgZGF0YS5mcmFtZSwgY2FsbGVkIEZyZXFCeVR3byB3aGljaCBzdG9yZXMgdGhlIEZyZXEgb2YgdGhlIHdvcmQsIGRpdmlkZWQgYnkgdHdvXG5cbiMgUHJpbnQgYSBzdW1tYXJ5IG9mIHRoZSBtb2RpZmllZCBkYXRhLkZyYW1lIiwic29sdXRpb24iOiIjIFRoZSBkYXRhLmZyYW1lIGRhdGFTZXQgaXMgYWxyZWFkeSBpbiB5b3VyIHdvcmtzcGFjZS4gXG5cbiMgRXh0cmFjdCBhbGwgV29yZHMgd2l0aCBhIHJlYWN0aW9uIHRpbWUgc21hbGxlciB0aGFuIDYwMC4gUHJpbnQgb25seSB0aGUgZmlyc3QgY291cGxlIG9mIHdvcmRzXG5oZWFkKGRhdGFTZXRbZGF0YVNldCRNZWFuX1JUIDwgNjAwLF0kV29yZClcblxuIyBFeHRyYWN0IHRoZSBMZW5ndGggYW5kIEZyZXEgb2YgdGhlIGZvbGxvd2luZyB3b3JkczogXCJtb25leXNcIiAgXCJzdGluZ2VyXCIgXCJzcGFyZVwiICAgXCJiYW5kYWdlXCIgXCJhY29yblwiICBcbmRhdGFTZXRbZGF0YVNldCRXb3JkICVpbiUgYyhcIm1vbmV5c1wiLCBcInN0aW5nZXJcIiwgXCJzcGFyZVwiLCBcImJhbmRhZ2VcIixcImFjb3JuXCIpLCBjKFwiTGVuZ3RoXCIsIFwiRnJlcVwiKV1cblxuIyBBZGQgYSBuZXcgdmFyaWFibGUgdG8gdGhlIGRhdGEuZnJhbWUsIGNhbGxlZCBGcmVxQnlUd28gd2hpY2ggc3RvcmVzIHRoZSBGcmVxIG9mIHRoZSB3b3JkLCBkaXZpZGVkIGJ5IHR3b1xuZGF0YVNldCRGcmVxQnlUd28gPC0gZGF0YVNldCRGcmVxLzJcblxuIyBQcmludCBhIHN1bW1hcnkgb2YgdGhlIG1vZGlmaWVkIGRhdGEuRnJhbWVcbnN1bW1hcnkoZGF0YVNldCkiLCJzY3QiOiJ0ZXN0X291dHB1dF9jb250YWlucyhcImhlYWQoZGF0YVNldFtkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQgPCA2MDAsXSRXb3JkKVwiLCBpbmNvcnJlY3RfbXNnID0gXCJNYWtlIHN1cmUgdG8gcHJpbnQgdGhlIGZpcnN0IGNvdXBsZSBvZiB2YWx1ZXMgb2YgRnJlcSA8IDYwMFwiKVxudGVzdF9vdXRwdXRfY29udGFpbnMoJ2RhdGFTZXRbZGF0YVNldCRXb3JkICVpbiUgYyhcIm1vbmV5c1wiLCBcInN0aW5nZXJcIiwgXCJzcGFyZVwiLCBcImJhbmRhZ2VcIixcImFjb3JuXCIpLCBjKFwiTGVuZ3RoXCIsIFwiRnJlcVwiKV0nLCBpbmNvcnJlY3RfbXNnID0gXCJNYWtlIHN1cmUgdG8gZXh0cmFjdCB0aGUgTGVuZ3RoIGFuZCB0aGUgRnJlcSBvZiB0aGUgd29yZHMgaW4gdGhlIGxpc3RcIilcbnN1Y2Nlc3NfbXNnKFwiR3JlYXQgam9iIVwiKSJ9

2. Measures of central tendency

  • Calculate these measures for the variables Freq and Mean_RT
  • ANALYZE:
    • What differences do you spot between Freq and Mean_RT on the one hand and Length on the other?

2.1 The Freq variable

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

2.1 The Mean_RT variable

eyJsYW5ndWFnZSI6InIiLCJwcmVfZXhlcmNpc2VfY29kZSI6ImxpYnJhcnkocmVhZHIpXG5kYXRhU2V0IDwtIHJlYWRfY3N2KFwiaHR0cDovL3d3dy5qZXJvZW5jbGFlcy5iZS9zdGF0aXN0aWNzX2Zvcl9saW5ndWlzdGljcy9kYXRhc2V0cy9jbGFzczJfYmFsb3RhX2V0X2FsXzIwMDcuY3N2XCIpIiwic2FtcGxlIjoiIyBUaGUgb2JqZWN0IGRhdGFTZXQgaXMgYWxyZWFkeSBpbiB5b3VyIHdvcmtzcGFjZVxuXG4jIENhbGN1bGF0ZSB0aGUgbWVhbiBvZiAnTWVhbl9SVCdcblxuIyBDYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIG1lZGlhbiBvZiAnTWVhbl9SVCdcblxuIyBDYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIDAuMjUsIDAuNSwgYW5kIDAuNzUgcXVhbnRpbGVzIG9mICdNZWFuX1JUJ1xuXG4jIENhbGN1bGF0ZSB0aGUgbW9kZSBvZiAnTWVhbl9SVCdcblxuIyBDYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIG1pbmltdW0gb2YgJ01lYW5fUlQnXG5cbiMgQ2FsY3VsYXRlIHRoZSBtYXhpbXVtIG9mICdNZWFuX1JUJyIsInNvbHV0aW9uIjoiIyBDYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIG1lYW4gb2YgJ01lYW5fUlQnXG5tZWFuKGRhdGFTZXQkTWVhbl9SVCwgbmEucm09VFJVRSlcbiMgQ2FsY3VsYXRlIHRoZSBtZWRpYW4gb2YgJ01lYW5fUlQnXG5tZWRpYW4oZGF0YVNldCRNZWFuX1JULCBuYS5ybT1UUlVFKVxuIyBDYWxjdWxhdGUgdGhlIDAuMjUsIDAuNSwgYW5kIDAuNzUgcXVhbnRpbGVzIG9mICdNZWFuX1JUJ1xucXVhbnRpbGUoZGF0YVNldCRNZWFuX1JULCBjKDAuMjUsIDAuNSwgMC43NSksIG5hLnJtID0gVFJVRSlcbiMgQ2FsY3VsYXRlIHRoZSBtb2RlIG9mICdNZWFuX1JUJ1xuc29ydCh0YWJsZShkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQpLCBkZWNyZWFzaW5nID0gVFJVRSlbMV1cbiMgQ2FsY3VsYXRlIHRoZSBtaW5pbXVtIG9mICdNZWFuX1JUJ1xubWluKGRhdGFTZXQkTWVhbl9SVCwgbmEucm09VFJVRSlcbiMgQ2FsY3VsYXRlIHRoZSBtYXhpbXVtIG9mICdNZWFuX1JUJ1xubWF4KGRhdGFTZXQkTWVhbl9SVCwgbmEucm09VFJVRSkiLCJzY3QiOiJ0ZXN0X291dHB1dF9jb250YWlucyhcIm1lYW4oZGF0YVNldCRNZWFuX1JULCBuYS5ybT1UUlVFKVwiLCBpbmNvcnJlY3RfbXNnID0gXCJNYWtlIHN1cmUgdG8gYWRkICduYS5ybT1UUlVFJyB0byB5b3VyICdtZWFuJyBjb2RlIVwiKVxudGVzdF9vdXRwdXRfY29udGFpbnMoJ21lZGlhbihkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQsIG5hLnJtPVRSVUUpJywgaW5jb3JyZWN0X21zZyA9IFwiTWFrZSBzdXJlIHRvIGFkZCAnbmEucm09VFJVRScgdG8geW91ciAnbWVkaWFuJyBjb2RlIVwiKVxudGVzdF9vdXRwdXRfY29udGFpbnMoXCJxdWFudGlsZShkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQsIGMoMC4yNSwgMC41LCAwLjc1KSwgbmEucm0gPSBUUlVFKVwiLCBpbmNvcnJlY3RfbXNnID0gXCJNYWtlIHN1cmUgdG8gYWRkICduYS5ybT1UUlVFJyB0byB5b3VyICdxdWFudGlsZScgY29kZSFcIilcbnRlc3Rfb3V0cHV0X2NvbnRhaW5zKFwic29ydCh0YWJsZShkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQpLCBkZWNyZWFzaW5nID0gVFJVRSlbMV1cIiwgaW5jb3JyZWN0X21zZyA9IFwiTWFrZSBzdXJlIHlvdSB1c2UgdGhlIG9uZS1saW5lIGFsdGVybmF0aXZlIHRvIGNhbGN1bGF0ZSB0aGUgbW9kZSFcIilcbnRlc3Rfb3V0cHV0X2NvbnRhaW5zKFwibWluKGRhdGFTZXQkTWVhbl9SVCwgbmEucm09VFJVRSlcIiwgaW5jb3JyZWN0X21zZyA9IFwiTWFrZSBzdXJlIHlvdSBhZGQgJ25hLnJtPVRSVUUnIHRvIHlvdXIgJ21pbicgY29kZSFcIilcbnRlc3Rfb3V0cHV0X2NvbnRhaW5zKFwibWF4KGRhdGFTZXQkTWVhbl9SVCwgbmEucm09VFJVRSlcIiwgaW5jb3JyZWN0X21zZyA9IFwiTWFrZSBzdXJlIHlvdSBhZGQgJ25hLnJtPVRSVUUnIHRvIHlvdXIgJ21heCcgY29kZSFcIilcbnN1Y2Nlc3NfbXNnKFwiR3JlYXQgam9iIVwiKSJ9

3. The normal distribution

  • Plot and test the Freq and Mean_RT variables.
  • Analyze:
    • Are these variables normally distributed?

3.1 The Freq variable

Mean and median

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

Density plot

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

QQ-plot

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

Shapiro-Wilk test

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

3.2 The Mean_RT variable

Mean and median

eyJsYW5ndWFnZSI6InIiLCJwcmVfZXhlcmNpc2VfY29kZSI6ImxpYnJhcnkocmVhZHIpXG5kYXRhU2V0IDwtIHJlYWRfY3N2KFwiaHR0cDovL3d3dy5qZXJvZW5jbGFlcy5iZS9zdGF0aXN0aWNzX2Zvcl9saW5ndWlzdGljcy9kYXRhc2V0cy9jbGFzczJfYmFsb3RhX2V0X2FsXzIwMDcuY3N2XCIpIiwic2FtcGxlIjoiIyBUaGUgb2JqZWN0IGRhdGFTZXQgaXMgYWxyZWFkeSBpbiB5b3VyIHdvcmtzcGFjZVxuIyBDb21wdXRlIHRoZSBtZWFuIG9mIE1lYW5fUlQuIFxuXG4jIENvbXB1dGUgdGhlIG1lZGlhbiBvZiBNZWFuX1JULiBcblxuIyBBcmUgdGhlIG1lYW4gYW5kIHRoZSBtZWRpYW4gY2xvc2UgdG9nZXRoZXIgbnVtZXJpY2FsbHk/ICBZb3Ugd2lsbCBmaW5kIHRoZSBjb3JyZWN0IGFuc3dlciBvbiB0aGUgdGFiIFNvbHV0aW9uIiwic29sdXRpb24iOiIjIyBUaGUgb2JqZWN0IGRhdGFTZXQgaXMgYWxyZWFkeSBpbiB5b3VyIHdvcmtzcGFjZVxuIyBDb21wdXRlIHRoZSBtZWFuIG9mIE1lYW5fUlQuIFxubWVhbihkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQsIG5hLnJtPVRSVUUpXG4jIENvbXB1dGUgdGhlIG1lZGlhbiBvZiBNZWFuX1JULiBcbm1lZGlhbihkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQsIG5hLnJtPVRSVUUpXG4jIEFyZSB0aGUgbWVhbiBhbmQgdGhlIG1lZGlhbiBjbG9zZSB0b2dldGhlciBudW1lcmljYWxseT8gXG4jIFllcywgdGhlIGRpZmZlcmVuY2UgYmV0d2VlbiB0aGUgbWVhbiBhbmQgdGhlIG1lZGlhbiBpcyBub3QgcmVhbGx5IGxhcmdlLiAiLCJzY3QiOiJ0ZXN0X291dHB1dF9jb250YWlucyhcIm1lYW4oZGF0YVNldCRNZWFuX1JULCBuYS5ybT1UUlVFKVxuXCIsIGluY29ycmVjdF9tc2cgPSBcIk1ha2Ugc3VyZSB0byBhZGQgJ25hLnJtPVRSVUUnIHRvIHlvdXIgJ21lYW4nIGNvZGUhXCIpXG50ZXN0X291dHB1dF9jb250YWlucyhcIm1lZGlhbihkYXRhU2V0JE1lYW5fUlQsIG5hLnJtPVRSVUUpXCIsIGluY29ycmVjdF9tc2cgPSBcIk1ha2Ugc3VyZSB0byBhZGQgJ25hLnJtPVRSVUUnIHRvIHlvdXIgJ21lZGlhbicgY29kZSFcIikifQ==

Density plot

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

QQ-plot

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

Shapiro-Wilk test

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

4. Measures of dispersion

  • Calculate the Range, Variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, and median absolute deviation of the Freq and Mean_RT variables.
  • Analyze:
    • Which one of these two is the most dispersed? I.e., which one has the least ‘normal’ distribution?

4.1 The Freq variable

Range, Variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, and median absolute deviation

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

Box-and-whiskers plot

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

4.1 The Mean_RT variable

Range, Variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, and median absolute deviation

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

Box-and-whiskers plot

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

© 2018 Jeroen Claes